LED stands for light-emitting diode. LEDs are small light sources that become illuminated by the movement of electrons through a semiconductor material. LEDs can be integrated into all sorts of products to provide white and coloured light, such as flashlights, light bulbs and integrated light fixtures.

There are two key types of LED lights – low-powered LEDs and high-powered LEDs.

Low-Powered LEDs
Low-powered LEDs are used to draw attention to something, such as an exit sign, a green power button on a computer, or a red blinking light on a video camera.
High-Powered LEDs
High-powered LEDs are used to illuminate an area. ENERGY STAR qualified LED lighting use multiple illuminator LEDs inside a fixture to produce white light.

SMD stands for Surface Mounted Device. An SMD is a light-emitting diode mounted and soldered onto a circuit board. SMDs take up very little space as their fixture does not require surrounding packaging. Single SMDs are most commonly found in places where small physical space is at a premium. As SMDs are very small and have very low voltage requirements, they will produce little heat. Due to being soldered onto a circuit board, SMDs do not require any enclosure that will focus the beam therefore it can have a much wider viewing angle.

LEDs are part of a family of lighting technologies called Solid-State lighting. This family also includes OLEDs (Organic Light Emitting Diodes). OLEDs (pronounced OH-leds) consist of sheets of carbon-based compounds that glow when a current is applied through transparent electrodes. While not yet market ready, OLEDs will function like a thin film on a wall or ceiling that illuminates a room. Like LEDs, OLED technology is advancing rapidly.

Solid-State lighting (SSL), most commonly seen in the form of Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs), has the potential to revolutionize the efficiency, appearance, and quality of lighting as we know it.

The quality of an LED is determined primarily by the chip used. It determines the service life of the LED and how the lighting behaviour of the LED changes over time. The major Chip manufacturers of LEDs are:

Brand Country Rating
Nichia Japan Exceptional
Cree USA Very Good
Bridgelux USA Very Good
Samsung Korea Very Good
Osram Germany Very Good
Epistar Taiwan Very Good
Edison Taiwan Very Good
SIlan China Average


In Australia, automotive cable is measured differently to other cables within other industries in Australia and other parts of the world. The majority of cables within Australia are measured use the cross sectional area of the conductive wires within the cable excluding the insulation as its size, although automotive cable is used measuring the diameter of the cable including its insulation.

For example a 4mm2 cable is not the same as a 4mm cable. The 4mm2 cable has a cross sectional area of the conductive wires whereas the 4mm cable has an overall diameter of 4mm including its insulation which in fact depending on the manufacturer of the cable would have a cross sectional area of the conductive wire of approximately 2.2mm2.